Lennox Clan

Lennox Crest: Two broadswords in saltire behind a swan's head and neck, all Proper.

Lennox Clan Motto: I'll Defend.

Lennox Clan History: The Gaelic name Levanach means “smooth stream” and refers to the Vale of Leven.  Alwin MacMuredach MacMaidouern, Mormaer of the Levavanch, which comprised the entirety of Dunbartonshire, as well as portions of Stirlingshire and Renfrewshire, lived in the 12th century. In the centuries that followed, the earldom of Lennox which sprang from him was associated with various members of the Royal Stewart family.

At the end of the 13th century, the earldom of Lennox wielded immense power in the land., and Malcolm, the 5th Earl strongly supported the claim of the Bruce family to the throne of Scotland. Although he rendered homage to Edward I of England in 1296 he remained loyal to Robert the Bruce throughout the War of Independence. When his son died without a male heir in 1373, the title passed to his daughter, whose husband assumed the title Earl of Lennox. They subsequently resigned the title to the Crown, who re-granted it to their son Duncan, whose eldest daughter had married Murdoch, Duke of Albany, grandson of Robert II. It was an unfortunate move since the Earl was beheaded in 1425 in his eightieth year for having been Albany's son-in-law. The succession of the title was afterwards disputed by the widowed Duchess of Albany's sisters.

Sir John Stewart of Darnley was created Earl of Lennox in 1473 and sat in the parliament of James IV.  In 1503, his son Matthew was appointed Hereditary Sheriff of Dunbartonshire. Ten years later he died at the Battle of Flodden. The younger son of the 4th Earl of Lennox was Henry, Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, and, after his death, the title passed to their son James VI of Scotland, I of England, who granted it first to his Uncle, then to his cousin Esmé Stuart, son of John, Lord d'Aubigny. In 1581, he was created Duke of Lennox, but when the line died out, the titles reverted to Charles II.

Charles Lennox was the natural son of Charles II by the Duchess of Portsmouth, and in 1675, was created Duke of Richmond. Charles, 4th Duke of Richmond was Governor General of Canada in 1818, and Charles, 6th Duke of Richmond and Lennox, Secretary of State for Scotland and Keeper of the Great Seal, was created Duke of Gordon in 1876. The present Duke of Richmond, Gordon and Lennox is the proprietor of the Goodwood Race Course in West Sussex, England.

Lennox Castle at Lennoxtown in Stirlingshire is a former seat of the Lennoxes of Woodhead who have now established their claim to the Chiefship. The Current Chief of the Name is Edward Lennox of that Ilk who lives at Ludlow in England.

Surname distribution in Scotland: The Lennox name is most commonly found in Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Glasgow City, East and West Dunbartonshire and Dumfries and Galloway (Dumfriesshire, Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire).

Places of Interest: On Inchmurrin Island in Loch Lomond are the ruins of Lennox Castle where the widowed Duchess of Albany retired in 1425 after the execution of her husband, her sons and father, the 8th Earl of Lennox.  Another ruined Lennox Castle is at Currie, in Midlothian, was the ancient seat of the earls of Lennox, and in the late-sixteenth century was owned by George Heriot, banker to James VI. In 1883, John Lennox Kincaid, son of John Kincaid of Kincaid and Cecile Lennox, built Lennox Castle in Stirlingshire. He commissioned the building of the castle while at the same time seeking to claim the lapsed earldom of Lennox. His claim was unsuccessful. In the 20th century, Lennox Castle became a hospital.

Clan Lennox membership certificates.